Here Jung might have been writing about the previous tale except that society and the state are shown there only in their negative aspects. In "The Nightingale and the Rose," however, the Word is deified in "Logic," "Philosophy," and "Metaphysics," whose study the Student returns to after his rejection by the daughter of the Professor an appropriate occupation in this context and in his discarding of the red rose the Nightingale had provided.
The Student's one-sided preference for Logos over Eros is clear from the moment he first sees the rose. The Student, the young woman, and their society are all one-sided psychically. They have devalued the "capacity to relate" Jung, Mysterium Coniunctionis offered in the archetypal principle of Eros, here symbolized by both the Nightingale and the rose. The Student and the young woman are similar to those Jung writes about. The Student desecrates the rose by throwing it into the street, where it falls into the gutter and gets run over by a cartwheel.
The woman rejects the rose because it won't go with her dress--she is a sort of negative female dandy, concerned only with appearances and status. Jung refers to "the lunar nature of feminine consciousness" ibid. Esther Harding. What is needed for wholeness, for the Student and the young woman as well as for the late Victorian age, is balance: an honoring of the "feminine" principle symbolized by what Jung calls Eros or Luna--relatedness and the archetype of love, here romantic love. Arthur Evans, in his book on Dionysus, shows how the Western devaluation of the cult of the bisexual Dionysus with his female followers parallels the patriarchal devaluation of women and homosexuals.
Characteristic of this devaluation is a lack of what Barfield calls original participation and hence a devaluation of nature itself. This started as early as the fourth century B. Not only was there a sharp distinction between animal, human, and god, but the human experience itself was becoming fragmented. The "nobler" or "better" or "higher" part of human beings was increasingly identified with reason, or rather with abstract, discursive reason. It is a central archetypal concern of Wilde's fairy tales. Promising to provide the red rose "out of music by moonlight" and to "stain it with my own heart's-blood," the Nightingale asks of the Student only that he "will be a true lover, for Love is wiser than Philosophy, though she is wise, and mightier than Power, though he is mighty.
In the vernacular, he has too much "head" knowledge and almost no "heart" knowledge. Barbara Seward is dead wrong when she dismisses "The Nightingale and the Rose" as "a simple allegory of the destruction of love and beauty by a materialistic civilization," although she observes that Wilde uses the Persian legend in which "the nightingale fell in love with the white rose and sang to it until he collapsed exhausted on its thorns, thereby staining it red with his life's blood" The rose Seward refers to and Wilde's rose are in fact symbols of wholeness, of the androgynous union of opposites Jung calls the Self See Zolla 53 on the white and red roses in alchemy : male and female the rose tree with its phallic thorn is a male, the nightingale a female , the pale rose that becomes passionately, beautifully red, the Logos and the Eros.
Wilde is right that the only lover is the Nightingale. The wholeness it achieves is symbolized by the discarded, devalued rose. In the end, the Student and the young woman reject the wholeness offered by that symbol. As we have seen, the story could move Wilde himself to tears, so that it must have sprung from deep personal as well as collective sources.
The Giant has a lovely garden, with "twelve peach-trees" and birds that sing "so sweetly [. After seven years of visiting the Cornish ogre until his "limited" conversation ran out, the Giant returns and selfishly expels the children from his garden and builds a wall around it. As if in punishment for his actions, winter descends perpetually on the Giant's garden. Music, also a motif in "The Nightingale and the Rose," heralds the return of spring to the garden when the children return through a hole in the wall.
As he observes the fun the children are having, the Giant has a change of heart and feels contrite about his former selfishness. Only in one corner of the garden is it still winter. That is because a little boy in the corner can't climb the Tree that beckons, "Climb up! The Giant gently puts the boy into the tree, which immediately blooms and attracts birds to its branches.
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The grateful boy hugs the Giant around the neck and kisses him. The children, who had fled upon sight of the Giant, return when the Giant beckons to them: "It is your garden now, little children" And he knocks the wall down.
However, that is the last he sees of the little boy, his favorite, until the boy returns years later as Christ, with the stigmata, "the wounds of Love. Obviously we have here again the archetype of transformation, a frequent archetype in fairy tales. We have also elements of the Hades-Persephone- Demeter myth. The garden, according to Jung, is a feminine symbol Psychology and Alchemy 72 , which, by his selfishness the Giant has devalued, rejecting the Eros principle of warmth, connection, relatedness.
Just as the earth is left barren and uncared for after Hades abducts Persephone and takes her to the Underworld while her mother Demeter, vegetation goddess, grieves and searches for her, so does the Giant's garden remain under snow and hail as long as the Giant refuses his hospitality to the children. The Giant's redemption is sealed, however, not by relating specifically to a female figure, but rather by his tenderness toward the boy. Yet the boy functions more as the unconscious teacher for the Giant.
He functions as the anima would function, introducing the Giant to previously unconscious dimensions of his psyche--generosity, relatedness with other people, and, most important, love. Until recently the anima has always been considered the feminine side of a man's psyche in Jungian thought and been symbolized by a female. However, as Hopcke shows, this concept comes out of Jung's patriarchal, heterosexual frame of reference where women are made to carry the burden of all the so-called feminine attributes such as the Eros principle and relationship to the unconscious. As Hopcke writes:.
Interestingly, Hopcke writes here in the context of a discussion of the Hades-Persephone-Demeter myth. Hades, he notes, never changes in this patriarchal myth. Demeter, given Demophoon by his mother Metaneira in order to compensate Demeter for her loss of her daughter Persephone, fails in her attempt to grant Demophoon immortality. Hopcke posits the possibility of a "male anima" who functions exactly as the anima has always functioned, as "guide to the unconscious and to relatedness with others," and who, again like the traditional anima, is "a figure of often enormous erotic charge, all too frequently idealized and projected out onto a man's object of love" Jungian analyst John Beebe makes a distinction between the function of the anima and the anima figure, which, he says, is "usually female, even for homosexual men" The females in Wilde's fairy tales do not always appear as positive figures, but the Eros principle is honored and shown to be needed.
Wilde, as a homosexual man, was able unconsciously to portray the need for psychic wholeness in non-patriarchal ways.
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In Wilde's crowning achievement, The Importance of Being Earnest , both male and female figures discover the need for connection and relatedness in a plot where patriarchal values are subverted. In his psychotherapeutic work, Hopcke finds the male anima appearing frequently, especially in the dreams and fantasies of gay men.
That the anima should take the form of a male in a fairy tale created by Wilde, a gay man, is not therefore surprising.
As the child archetype, he adumbrates psychic growth for the Giant--and the readers of the tale as well. Wilde's vision becomes extremely dark in the fourth of the five stories in The Happy Prince and other Tales. Biographically, the story is about betrayal, as Ellmann points out. Wilde "had experienced betrayal at the hands of [. James McNeill] Whistler [and several others], and he obliquely portrayed his sense of being wronged in the ironical story 'The Devoted Friend'" Perhaps inspired by Andersen's "The Ugly Duckling," Wilde has a mother duck attempting to instruct her children how to stand on their heads so that they can be in the "best society.
He proceeds to tell the story of "The Devoted Friend. Murray suggests Hans's name might be "a gentle mockery of Andersen," but a glance at the titles of the Grimm fairy tales will demonstrate also that Hans is a common name for heroes of fairy tales. The Miller exploits Hans in every imaginable way: he takes flowers from Hans's beautiful garden when Hans desperately needs to sell them; he makes Hans work for him, thus forcing him to neglect his garden; he indirectly causes Hans's death by sending him out in a terrible storm without a lantern to save his, the Miller's, little son.
Hans loses his way and drowns in "a great pool of water" Here the story is prophetic.
Enjoying spiced wine and sweet cakes in the inn after the funeral with Hans's admirers, the Miller laments with pompous exaggeration: "One always suffers for being generous" In fact, his generosity consisted only in the promise of giving Hans a broken wheelbarrow, plus empty advice on friendship and an occasional inquiry as to what he's been up to.
The Water-rat is annoyed that the Linnet neither knows nor cares about what became of the Miller, with whom the rat naturally enough identifies. Moreover, the Water-rat is even more annoyed to discover the tale has a moral. Like the literary critic he had earlier alluded to, he says "Pooh" and hastens back into his hole. Although again the principles of Eros and Logos are embodied in male characters, the division between the two is graphic.
Hans tends a garden, a feminine symbol, as we have seen. He has a "kind heart" and is generous to a fault to his friend. He has too much Eros and virtually no Logos to balance him psychologically. The Miller, on the other hand, is unbalanced on the side of Logos. He browbeats his youngest son, a puer who still has enough of Eros that, during the winter when Hans can barely get by, he would give Hans "half my porridge, and show him my white rabbits.
I certainly will not allow Hans's nature to be spoiled. It is just like being in church'" Clearly the church does nothing to create balance between Logos and Eros.
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In fact, by supporting the patriarchal system, it perpetuates the imbalance. The Water-rat, too, although associated with water, a feminine symbol, is masculine--a phallus-like creature who goes in and out of his hole. A "confirmed bachelor" , he has no understanding of relatedness or generosity.