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Je signale cette discussion aussi ici sur les droits d'auteur pour les oeuvres des situationnistes.

De l’expérimentation multimédia à l’analyse

Bzhqc d. Je parcourais le Faust traduit par Nerval projet de mars et j'ai deux interrogations concernant la page 3 :. Quelqu'un aurait-il une solution? Ou supprimer ce lien [modifier]? Y a-t-il une erreur dans la page de l'auteur en question? Comment faire pour renommer les illustrations? Quelle erreur ai-je commise, SVP?

S'agit-il d'une erreur de nommage, dans le sommaire, dans le codage? Le Petit-Trianon de Desjardins aussi. J'ai entrepris de publier les Rougon-Macquart, et j'ai de nombreuses corrections aux texte de wikisource. Par exemple, j'en ai fait plus de sur La Fortune des Rougon, et si j'en crois le log de wikisource, il m'a fallu plus de 4 heures.

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Je ne pense pas avoir la patience de reporter toutes les corrections. Aussi bien Gallica que Google ont un identificateur unique et permanent des scans. La relecture et son signalement seraient ainsi toujours possibles.

Y a-t-il une solution? Guizot sur Gallica Bonjour, Je re-ouvre le sujet car j'ai un petit soucis avec une note interminable qui coure sur plusieurs pages. Ou est-ce un bug qui sera un jour? Merci de votre attention. Un expert pourrait-il m'aider SVP? Y a-t-il un moyen d'indiquer qu'il manque des lettres aux mots? Merci de votre aide. On pourrait se parler sur skype ou qqc du genre, histoire de sauver du temps.. Quels autres boutons ajouter? Ainsi je vois exactement les modif d'apostrophe que je dois faire avant de publier. Sans savoir si cela est faisable, je pense qu'un lien bleu sur cette phrase serait pertinent pour nous orienter vers ce service.

Dois-ton corriger aussi le texte latin, ce genre de texte a-t-il sa place sur ws. Source ici.


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Ce vandale a rendu la strophe illisible. Merci de me contacter par ma page de discussion pour m'aider.

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Bonjour, Je travaille depuis quelques jours sur un livre de Kant - Doctrine de la vertu.. Merci infiniment pour toute aide. Il n'y a pas d'urgence, je n'en suis qu'au tome 2. Est-ce que quelqu'un peut me confirmer que mon travail semble juste. C'est juste pour voir si je n'ai pas fait d'erreur.

Bonjour, au secours. For example, matrilineality disappeared from both North and South Atlantic groups, surviving only among the Bijogo 29 on their isolated islands. A few traces remain among the Mani and Kim in naming practices and female paramount chiefs. In general the Atlantic speakers of the north had become organized beyond the hamlet Mandinguinized? They were the first to be infiltrated by the smiths and traders who only gradually moved their operations southwards.

During the second phase in the north, the Mandekan warriors encountered the Jolof Kingdom, whose power they did not directly confront, and were deflected southward to below the Gambia, thus avoiding any imposition of their rule north of the Gambia. There was also significant resistance further south: the Fula were able to resist the onslaught because of their organization, their conversion to Islam, and militant proselytizing.

This combination of factors prevented the Mandekan warriors from having as great an effect in the north as they did in the south. I will next characterize the present-day geographic and social configurations of the two groups. Current geographical distribution Map 1 shows the entirety of the Atlantic territory today excluding some far-flung Fulfulde speakers. The Atlantic languages appear in gold and the Mande languages in green.

TC] Calvet on their less robust neighbors. Tucker Childs Map 1.

The Atlantic languages Segerer revised by the author Map 2 shows the less widely spoken Atlantic languages more revealingly. In this display the more widely spoken languages being shifted to, Wolof 1 , Fulfulde 2 , and Temne 34 , appear in red.

Orthographe Et Populations Exceptionnelles Perspectives Didactiques -

The general picture that emerges is that of smaller groups being pushed towards the sea and in a few places being pushed into forests and highland areas. Several features of this map show how peripheralized and reduced these smaller groups are. I will indicate only a few examples the reader may want to refer back to Map 1 for others after this brief illustration.

Finally, the Gola area is much smaller than is represented on the map Dalby The Atlantic languages Segerer revised by author 2. Social characterization What is revealed by a combination of history and synchronic geographical distribution is a general asymmetry in power and resources, with the newer arrivals, the Mande interlopers, having the upper hand. In this section I summarize the evidence for Mande superiority, which, as noted above, is manifested in their military might and in their skill at imposing their social structures on their hosts.

There is an equivalent abundance of evidence for Atlantic inferiority. It is this disparity that has led to a situation ripe for one language to influence another in predictable ways. There is much evidence for Mande superiority Childs One factor was the prestige and wealth of the early traders. Another was the knowledge of utensil- and weapon-making, along with the fact that the smiths were believed to possess magical powers. The later Mandeng warriors were physically superior with their horses, weapons, and military conquests.

Tucker Childs would enlist the men they conquered as soldiers or slaves. Furthermore, speakers of Mande languages kept aloof; they were reluctant to assimilate fully to the resident culture, especially those who followed Islam. Finally, Mande speakers were superior in that they typically lived in towns, and even founded a few towns themselves. The cultural effects of Mande contact and superiority can similarly be characterized.

The power associations they installed and controlled with themselves at the top were one instantiation of the hierarchical social structure replacing the flatter, more egalitarian structures traditionally found among Atlantic peoples Fairhead et al. Various cultural artifacts and institutions were introduced, for example the marabouts or morimen. The switch from matrilineal to patrilineal societies is another result Niane These examples all attest to the overweening influence of Mande culture on the Atlantic peoples.

The influence also extends to language. Linguistically the groups have been said to be typological opposites e. There are shared features which are attributable to contact, of the sort characterized socioculturally above.


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There have been intense periods of contact, and because of the asymmetrical control of power and resources, the influence has gone largely one way, from Mande languages to Atlantic languages. Thus, in the Mande-Atlantic interactions we see many of the results of contact found elsewhere on the continent. What makes this case particularly informative is that it takes place independently of European contact and thus could be representative of other unreported, totally African phenomena.